Aneurysms – Aortic Aneurysms

An aneurysm is the enlargement of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall. Often there are no symptoms, but a ruptured aneurysm can lead to fatal complications. Aneurysms affect a variety of arteries. It can be devided into Aortic aneurysm and peripheral aneurysm.

AORTIC ANEURYSM:

Aorta is the main and biggest blood vessel of human body which connects heart to other organs and it passes through chest (thorax) and abdomen. Abnormal enlargement of aorta is called aortic aneurysm which can be either thoracic or abdominal.

 

The most common aneurysm of the aorta is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This occurs in the part of the aorta that runs through the abdomen. Less commonly, a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) can affect the part of the aorta running through the chest. Rupture of an aortic aneurysm can cause massive internal bleeding and death of the patient.

Endo-Vascular Aneurysm Repair of AAA

An aortic aneurysm can be with out any symptoms or it can cause abdominal pain, back pain. Aortic aneurysm bigger than 5.5 cm in size can have more risk of rupture and other complications.

 

Treatment of an aortic aneurysm consists of conventional open surgery or more advanced minimal invasive endovascular repair which is also known as EVAR or TEVAR. In EVAR or TEVAR, a stent graft is placed in side aorta through small hole in groin (Femoral artery).

PERIPHERAL ANEURYSMS:

Aneurysms or dilatation of any artery other than aorta is called as peripheral aneurysms. It can affect blood vessel supplying to any part of body. Types of peripheral aneurysm include:

  • Popliteal aneurysm:This happens behind the knee. It is the most common peripheral aneurysm.
  • Splenic artery aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs near the spleen.
  • Mesenteric artery aneurysm: This affects the artery that transports blood to the intestines.
  • Femoral artery aneurysm: The femoral artery is in the groin.
  • Carotid artery aneurysm: This occurs in the neck.
  • Visceral aneurysm: This is a bulge of the arteries that supply blood to the bowel or kidneys.

Peripheral aneurysms are having very less mortality compared to aortic aneurysms but if it ruptures than complication rate is much higher.

 

Treament again consists of either open surgical repair or if possible advanced minimal invasive endovascular technique using covered stent graft.